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金融消费者的概念和范围:一个比较法的视角(摘要)
内容提要:传统消费者概念适用于金融领域时存在的不确定性,以及现有金融行业立法在保护性上的不足,使得在我国构建金融消费者概念具有现实必要性。代表性的国外立法实践表明,金融消费者的概念和范围主要是实践塑造而非理论推演的产物,与金融监管模式和监管体制有着不可分割的内在联系。从我国现实情况出发,较为可行的做法是对金融消费者进行宽松的界定,使其涵盖整个金融服务领域,而在消费者保护制度方面则遵循最低限度协调原则,只做出总体性、原则性的规定,由行业监管部门基于行业特点和监管需要制定实施细则;与此同时,保留和延续既有的证券投资者概念和投资者保护制度,实现金融消费者和投资者这两个概念、两套制度的并存和并用。

关键词:金融消费者 消费者金融 投资者 综合监管 分业监管

Abstract

The uncertainties as to the applicability of the traditional concept of “consumer” to the financial area, as well as the insufficient protection provided by current financial laws to the recipients of financial services, necessitate the building of the concept of “financial consumer” in China. A careful examination of relevant legislations in the United States and United Kingdom indicates that the definition and scope of the concept of financial consumer is more of a product of practical evolution than of a result of theoretical deduction, and is inseparably linked to the model and system of financial regulation. In consideration of the actual conditions in China, a feasible option is to on the one hand make a broad definition of financial consumer, covering the whole financial area, and on the other hand only provide for a general framework of financial consumer protection based on the principle of minimum coordination, leaving the drafting of implementing rules to the various sectoral regulatory bodies. Meanwhile, the existing concept of securities investor and the correspondent system of investor protection should be maintained, and brought into coexistence with the concept of financial consumer and the system of financial consumer protection.

Key words: Financial Consumer, Consumer Finance, Investor, Integrated Regulation, Sectoral Regulation

(全文见《环球法律评论》2012年第4期)

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主办:中国社会科学院法学研究所、国际法研究所
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